Principles of Lightning and Surge Protection

Lightning strokes, which total 200 kA or 300 kV, cause hazards on the equipment or location, so lightning protection is essential for operation.
Why don’t we focus on the initial note to what is lightning and why lightning protection can be so important. Principle phenomenon behind lightning is charges accumulated through the cloud and also the earth are equal and opposite. This forms a non-uniform potential gradient surface up. In the event the gradient is greater compared to potential of the surface, the breakdown occurs plus a “streamer” flows through the cloud towards the earth.
A direct stroke takes place when the lightning hits the energy systems directly how the immense potential can cause destruction of the equipment or facility. In contrast, an indirect stroke occurs from the lightning discharges in the proximity of the power line or from electrostatic discharge about the conductor due to the charged clouds.
The main power system elements requiring lightning protection are power feeds, alarm systems, telephone lines, data and control systems and RF cables.
Strategies to Lightning Protection. The rolling sphere method is useful for identifying the actual positioning of the lightning and surge protection devices close to the equipment under operation.

Protection with the power line against direct strokes is by a ground wire or protector tube. The first kind produces electrostatic screening, that’s suffering from the capacitances of the cloud to line as well as the line to ground. Rogues forms an arc between your electrodes, causing gas deionisation.
Rooftop/Frame Protection. It’s interesting to notice the building and rooftop frame or cladding is preferably metal than insulation type.
Setting up a finial at the top of the power tower really should have the absolute minimum distance of a single.5 m above the highest antenna or lights. A real rooftop or building frame is constructed of reinforced steel for cover purpose.
Wooden towers without downconductors could potentially cause a fire hazard, as they route the incoming charges to ground. In principal, for non-metallic roofs, proper downconductors needs to be installed at the appropriate location and height.
Device Protection. Antenna lightning protection is supplied through spark gap, the gas discharge tube and quad-wavelength shorted stub. The very first method uses ball points to ensure that if a strike occurs, high potential forms between them along with the ground. The other method causes gas deionisation through arc formation relating to the electrodes. The very last method uses a coax transmission line throughout the transmission line to ensure that system bandwidth is narrow.
A lightning arrester is often a device offering lightning protection by regulating spark gaps. The unit classification may vary from rod gap, horn gap and valve type to metal oxide lightning arresters.
Earthing and Bonding Solutions. Now learn about how earthing and bonding solutions for lightning protection needs to be afforded. The style of earth rods, terminals or clamps must be in a way to route the incoming transients to earth to minimise step and touch potentials. The geometric measurements chosen should abide by the IEEE and NFPA standards. Any earthing system needs to have proper bonding, as ground potential rise cannot be compensated. Again, the amount of interconnects and spacing must be designed per the lightning standards.
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